This gives a nice graphical representation where the plane at x = 0 bounds the function from below. The quadratic bar element is a one-dimensional finite element where the local and global coordinates coincide. 01-May-2019 . [C] When geometry of the element is convex and local node numbering is anticlockwise. Small holes lead to many small elements (and long run times). true only if the elements have ideal shapes (e. Quadratic Stark Effect. The stresses in the quadratic element are not _____ a) Linear b) Uniform c) Constant d) Undefined. ME 478 FINITE ELEMENT METHOD Chapter 6. Then the unit tangent to C^is. UNIT 5 81. The stress of an element (XY) are shown in figure. For 1-D bar elements if the structure is having 3 nodes then the stiffness matrix formed is having an order of A : 2x2 B : 3x3 C : 4x4 D : 1x1. 3 De nition of Boundaries In the nite element method boundary conditions are used to either form Let us consider rectangular elements, and transform them into a local coordinate system P3 P2 P1 x y P3 P2 P1 x h before after P4 P4 With the linear Ansatz we obtain matrix A as and the basis functions With the quadratic Ansatz we obtain an 8x8 matrix A . Although any mixture of 1D and 2D elements generates a knot, the knot is modeled as a hinge for any plane stress, plane strain or axisymmetric elements involved in the knot. 1. Element type S4 does not have hourglass modes in either the membrane or bending response of the element; hence, the element does not require hourglass control. 18. 5. processes these elements typically using matrix methods to produce the required results (deformation, stress, etc). 2. 4. 25-Dec-2017 . The Constant strain triangle can give____ stresses on elements. The permissible stress for carbon steel under static loading is generally taken as. The periodic classification helps in determining the relationship between elements and predicts the chemical properties and behaviour of a newly discovered element. R. Stress is (a)External force (b)Internal resistive force (c)Axial force (d)Radial force (Ans:b) 2. What meant by plane stress analysis? Plane stress is defined to be a state of stress in which the normal stress and shear stress directed perpendicular to the plane are assumed to be zero. The moment it exerts is not the same about any point. Fig. - These MCQs also cover lots of code, code snippets and/or complete programs. (6. 14 to evaluate the local Jacobian J e (r). These elements use either linear- or second-order (quadratic) interpolation for the geometry and displacements in two or three directions. 1. This is not an all exclusive list of FEA questions, and in no way can it . 51) Derive the shape functions for a 1D quadratic bar element. 3. Those false high stress regions may cause you to overlook other areas of true high stress levels. Obtain shape functions for the one-dimensional quadratic element with three . 18. two syllables with stress on both C. Use the 3 node element interpolation of Eq. is not a plane curve it is said to be skew, tortuous or twisted . But when they are quadratic, this command only gets the values at the corner nodes and the mide nodes are zero, what is wrong. If an object is on an inclined plane having an angle θ, the component of weight (w) parallel to incline is _____. The nodal forces and moments, , are related to the nodal displacements and 11．On the principal plane of the element ( ). The nodal temperature and their corresponding positions are shown in the figure. Two syllables with stress on one B. 14 Determine the nodal displacements and the element stresses, including principal stresses, due to the loads shown for the thin plates in Figure P6–14. Cite chapter. Figure 1 showsa positive deﬁnite quadratic form. 1 Summary: • Linear shape functions in 1D • Quadratic and higher order shape functions • Approximation of strains and stresses in an element Axially loaded elastic bar x y x=0 x=L A(x) = cross section at x b(x) = body . Quadratic reduced-integration elements are not susceptible to locking, even when subjected to complicated states of stress. Solution: For given structure if node numbering is not given we have to. Select the correct answer to the following multiple-choice questions. 25-Dec-2017 . Multiple-choice Questions; Site Navigation; Navigation for Pre This contains 10 Multiple Choice Questions for Mechanical Engineering Test: Shafts, Keys & Couplings - 1 (mcq) to study with solutions a complete question bank. Sep 06, 2016 · Stress strain curve is the plot of stress and strain of a material or metal on the graph. The CST nature of this element is coming from the nature of the shape function . A. This, however, does not apply to plane stress, plane strain and axisymmetric elements. 2, 3. Isoparametric Formulation Same function that is used to define the element geometry is used to define the displacements within the element 2 Node Truss Element Linear geometry Linear displacements 3 Node Beam Element Quadratic geometry Quadratic displacements We assign the same local coordinate system to . 3, the state of stress at a given point is given as σ=σ=σ=σ=σxx yy 12 and τ=xy 0. Not much really… it only needs to tell both elements, how much it has . hardiness d. I explain the rational not to average (B. boundaries. Beam and shell elements are always connected in a stiff way if they share common nodes. 18-Oct-2019 . (b) H, He, Li. Q. 2. The word "Doctor" has A. The vector sum of the force couple always has a value. Consider the following bar element, as shown below: 22 0 L pxx1x1x s VS A dx f u f u 2 X u dV T u dS bx 1 12 2 u uN N u 1 1 x N L 2 x N L Stiffness Matrix for a Bar Element Potential Energy Approach to Derive Bar Element Equations where N1 and N2 are the interpolation functions gives as: Using the stress-strain relationships, the axial strain . M Asst. 5 Unequal impedance of the four gauge arms can be best compensated by. . Option A: . Assume plane stress conditions apply. 48 Quadratic Gaussian quadrature element can be used to accurately determine the integral of a polynomial function with a degree not exceeding _____. Answer:-D : They must be thick and the variation of stresses take place along the thickness of element. By using these displacement solutions, stress and strain in each element can be . C Q. B. MCQ 196: Choose the correct option according to the given statement. 2. 5 m from the top)? 16. 1-D and 2-D elements: summary. - 1000+ Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) in Data Structure - II with a detailed explanation of every question. Connecting element 1 2 3 7 6 5 4 lin. W. Statement 2: Computer software is the product that software engineers design and build. FIGURE 1. C Q. stresses. The section contains MCQs on four node quadrilateral, . For higher-order elements, such as the quadratic bar with three nodes, [B] becomes a function of natural coordinates s. 1. g. will act only at nodes and not at any other place in the element. - These MCQs cover theoretical concepts, true-false(T/F) statements, fill-in-the-blanks and match the following style statements. In a reinforced concrete beam, the shear stress distribution above the neutral axis follows a (a) straight line (b) circular curve (c) parabolic curve (Ans) (d) none of these 3. Determine the nodal displacements, element stresses and support . I. Find out more, read a sample chapter, or order an inspection copy if you are a lecturer, from the Higher Education website Feb 22, 2020 · A. Plane stress element is an extension of (a) truss element (c) pipe element (b) beam element (d) spring element [A ] 16. . But we will be forced to use this if the geometry is very complecated due to the difficulty in meshing with quad elements. It is an unstable element. In the above questions, will the answers be the exact answers? If your answer is no, what aspect of the problem makes it so the FEA answer is not fully correct? 18. a. 1. quad. 43) Why is four noded quadrilateral element is preferred for . The pore pressure is interpolated linearly from the corner nodes. stress B. 17. personal d. , at 0. The quadratic bar element has modulus of elasticity E, cross-sectional area A, and length L. Answer:-B : 3x3. This may include: a. Examples of methods that use . The elastic bar is often modeled as a linear spring. (e) resilience. Then, a quadratic element mesh would give exact stresses and displacements everywhere, but a linear element mesh would not. Following are the basic types of stress except (a)Tensile stress (b)Compressive stress (c)Shear stress (d)Volumetric stress (Ans:d) 3. Q3) a) Explain the scenario based elements of analysis model in detail. Therefore, these elements are generally the best choice for most general stress/displacement simulations, except in large-displacement simulations involving very large strains and in some types of contact analyses. 0 Two Dimensional FEA Frequently, engineers need to compute the stresses and deformation in relatively thin plates or sheets of material and finite element analysis is ideal for this type of computations. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. If one is to average the stresses at the joint between the web and flange, one would notice that the stresses would drop along this seam. 19. SET 2 of Finite element analysis (FEA) MCQ. (e) 10,000-15,000 kg/cm2. Ans. [C] When geometry of the element is convex and local node numbering is anticlockwise. A. 22) can be used to solve the problem. The quadratic form does not equal a matrix (q is a scalar quantity, not a matrix). The basis functions for finite element problems can be obtained by: ¾Transforming the system in to a local (to the element) system ¾Making a linear (quadratic, cubic) Ansatz. This, however, does not apply to plane stress, plane strain and axisymmetric elements. These output variables can be requested for output to the data (. 2D Elements can be used to analyze sheet metal and similar structures. Which of the following is not a basic type of strain? . poem D. Professor Mechanical Engineering Department National . . UNIT II: Analysis of Trusses: Stiffness Matrix for Plane Truss and Space Truss Elements, Stress. a) Show that it will not be constant except for the special case where the interior node is exactly in the middle of the element in physical space, x e 2 = (x e 1 + x e 3)/2. Electrical Engineering MCQ [ hide] 1 Which parameter of a strain gauge varies with applied force. 3. g. It is characterized by quadratic shape functions. The extension of Gaussian quadrature to two-dimensional integrals of the form of _____. Curved element edges should be avoided; exact linear spatial pore pressure variations cannot be obtained with curved edges. odb) file (see “Output to the output database,” Section 4. four nodal quadrilateral plane stress Isoparametric element is defined by . Multiple Choice Questions and Answers By Jhasketan Garud January 9, 2020 Multiple Choice Questions and Answers on Stress Management The questions and answers on stress management have been designed in such a way that you will learn the subject in the process of answering the questions. Beam and shell elements are always connected in a stiff way if they share common nodes. Principal Stresses and Strains - Mechanical Engineering (MCQ) questions and answers Home >> Category >> Mechanical Engineering (MCQ) questions and answers >> Principal Stresses and Strains 1) When a component is subjected to axial stress the normal stress σ n is maximum, if cos θ is _______ . economic c. [Skip Breadcrumb Navigation]: [Skip Breadcrumb Navigation] Home: Chapter 11 : No Frames Version Presentation Skills. We can visualise these components as acting on the cube as follows. The shape functions in order at node 1 of a 1D quadratic element will be. (a) Determine normal stress and shear stress acting on the plane that is inclined at 20o as shown in the figure. 2. b) Nodal displacement. . plasticity, creep); large strain (gross changes in structure . These Numerical Integration MCQ Questions Will help you to improve your Finite Element Method knowledge and will prepare you for various Examinations like Competitive Exams, Placements, Interviews and other Entrance Exmaniations ← Hash Tables with Linear Probing Multiple choice Questions and Answers (MCQs) Hashing Functions Multiple choice Questions and Answers (MCQs) → BUY PDF <<CLICK HERE>> Page 2 of 2 «Prev 1 2 Ans : D. Suvranu De Reading assignment: Lecture notes, Logan 2. Connection between a linear and a quadratic quad Quadratic interpolation with node number 8 in the middle of 1–7: u(M) = N 1q 1 +N 8q 8 +N 7q 7 On edge 1–7, in the linear element, the displacement should verify: q 8 =? For a quadratic one dimensional element of length L, find the nodal forces vector if a distributed horizontal load of (load per unit length) is applied on the element. [B]T -Strain displacement [D]-Stress strain matrix [B]-Strain . •One question that arises with this type of element is: Where to place the mid-side and center nodes? The common answer is: at the midpoints and centroid, respectively. Chapter 4 – 2D Triangular Elements Page 1 of 24 2D Triangular Elements 4. When x has only two elements, we can graphically represent Q in 3 di-mensions. Equations of elasticity – Plane stress, plane strain and axisymmetric . 1. will act only at nodes and not at any other place in the element. Torsion of Non circular shafts –Quadrilateral elements – Higher Order Elements. 48 Quadratic Gaussian quadrature element can be used to accurately determine the integral of a polynomial function with a degree not exceeding __. Reduced integration elements do not permit internal stress gradients because of their single . 2) or as either field- or history-type output to the output database (. (b) Determine the maximum normal stress and its orientation. involute corresponding to the element ds of the curve G. A triangular plane stress element has ………degree's of freedom [A] 3 [B] 4 [C] 5 [D] 6 Number of displacement polynomials used for an element . D. working . An element is subjected to the plane stresses shown in the figure. A．The normal stress must be maximum B．The normal stress must be zero C．The shearing stress must be minimal D．The shearing stress must be zero 12．The third and fourth strength theories are mainly applicable to ( ). Apr 19, 2020 · How to get Stress result in APDL while using quadratic elements? (When the elements are linear it is necessary to use only *vget, TENS_EQV (1), NODE ,, S, EQV. Non-linear static structural capabilities. Find the successive elements of the periodic table with ionisation energies, 2372, 520 and 890 kJ per mol respectively. material non-linearities (e. Ten noded triangular elements are known as Quadratic strain triangle. Answer: c Clarification: The stress applied to a material is the force per unit area applied to the material. For this case, as shown in Fig. . a) Linear b) Constant c) Uniform d) Parallel Answer: b Explanation: The constant strain triangle or cst is a type of element used in finite element analysis which is used to provide an approximate solution in a 2D domain to the exact solution of a given differential equation. 4 The formula for gauge factor is. 250+ TOP MCQs on Two Dimensional Problems – Constant Strain Triangle and Answers. 2 Strain gauges can be used to pickup. A) discontinuous across inter-element boundaries, B) continuous across inter-element boundaries, C) continuous within regions of the same materials, D) none of the above. e. Which of the following is not a quadratic equation (a) x² + 3x – 5 = 0 Before solution, boundary conditions (which are not accounted in element . A．ductile materials B．brittle materials 15. I. Element formed with quadratic or higher order displacement polynomialis a (a) simplex element (c) multiplex element (b) complex element (d) compound element [ B] 15. In Question 10, what is the stress at the middle of element 1 (i. P. The strains and stresses are NOT continuous across element boundaries . Ans. So the normal stresses are ˙ ii (summation convention) and the shear stresses are the ˙ ij, i6= j. These are many times the most common type of elements being used in FEA. It is characterized by quadratic shape functions in each of the x and y directions. Haftka EML5526 Finite Element Analysis University of Florida Shear stresses are positive when they act in the +ve direction on a positive face and –ve direction on a –ve face 8 Stress on an arbitrary plane (2-D) Y Let cos(θ) = l and sin(θ)= m We often need to enforce stress boundary conditions on surfaces that are not always . Oct 02, 2020 · Strain Gauge MCQ. g. What q does equal is x óT Ax ó where x ó = x 1 È x 4 example 2 If q has matrix 23 5 37-2 5 -2 1/2 thenq=2x2 +7y2 + 1 2 z 2 + 6xy + 10xz - 4yz. The sum of elements in any column must be equal to zero, 3. This will work, of course, but the node at the center is not strictly 8. A couple tends to cause a rotation of an object. can be applied to the bar, if the shear stress in the weld is not to exceed. shearing stresses in the beam are not caused by the variation of bending moment along the span (a) true (b) false (Ans) 49. 2. Isotropic state of stress In this case, to determine the state of stress at a given point a single element strain gage may be placed in any direction and the magnitude of stresses may be established from: xx yy 1 2 E 1 ε Q. dat) and results (. The approximate solution may not satisfy the DE exactly. The following does not belong to the basic components of speech A. Finite Element Method Multiple Choice Questions on “Two Dimensional Problems – Constant Strain Triangle”. of ultimate to allowable load or stress is known as factor of safety i. 3. We can deduce immediately that the element order is greater than one because the interpolation between the nodes in non-linear. , not to average is a generally accepted practice or G. a) I≈ w i w j f (ξ i ,η j) b) Natural co-ordinates. 1. 6. Introduction to Finite Elements Shape functions in 1D Prof. (a) Li, Be, B. The stress matrix is again given by Hooke's law as: E EB d CIVL 7/8117 Chapter 10 Isoparametric Elements 10/108 Mechanics of Solids MCQ question on Simple Stress and Strain. 2. Assumptions Nodal Forces and Moments Forces and moments can only be applied at the nodes of the beam element, not between the nodes. This phenomenon was first observed experimentally (in hydrogen) by J. They combine far faster computation time compared to 3D Elements while maintaining accurate results for most cases. 4. [D] When geometry of the element is convex and global node numbering is anticlockwise. In example 1, do not writ eq=A. They also cause stress concentrations that raise the local stress levels by a factor of three. . The Stark effect is a phenomenon by which the energy eigenstates of an atomic or molecular system are modified in the presence of a static, external, electric field. The Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is a numerical methodfor solving problems of engineering and mathematical physics. 5. (b)displacement (c)stiffness matrix (d)element stress strain. Step 1: Divide the body into finite elements connected to each . The solved questions answers in this Test: Shafts, Keys & Couplings - 1 quiz give you a good mix of easy questions and tough questions. It is also called as cubic displacement triangle. By using these displacement solutions, stress and strain in each element can be . ) 6. determine (i) The principal stresses (ii) maximum shear stress In all of the cases the results on properly oriented elements. (c) Sketch the plane of the maximum normal stress by showing its values and orientation. Class 10 Maths MCQs Chapter 4 Quadratic Equations. no 11. social b. boundary conditions, Quadratic shape functions. e. The element has four integration locations per element compared with one integration location for S4R, which makes the element computationally more expensive. Triangle 2D . 1. Sreenath. Limitations. About the book. the direction of the plane normal to the face of the volume element. Finite element method – basis functions. 82. all of the above; Commitment, control and challenge are all elements of: a. , no curved boundaries). The quadratic quadrilateral element is a two-dimensional finite element with both local and global coordinates. ) (a). a) Nodes and elements. c) w 1 f (ξ 1 )+w 2 f (ξ 2) d) w 1 f (ξ 1) View Answer. Using two quadratic one dimensional elements and the virtual work method, find the displacement of the nodes and the stress within each element of the following problem assuming . Although any mixture of 1D and 2D elements generates a knot, the knot is modeled as a hinge for any plane stress, plane strain or axisymmetric elements involved in the knot. rhythm C. intonation Ans: C Q. Multiple Choice Questions. Q. Figure 4: Stresses on a 3D element (obscured matching stresses to produce equilibrium not shown). 17 in the geometry mapping of Eq. [D] When geometry of the element is convex and global node numbering is anticlockwise. like P3 P2 P1 x h P4 + + + + P5 P6 P7 P8 N1 N2 The basis . A positive deﬁnite quadratic form will always be positive except at the point where x = 0. After plotting the stress and its corresponding strain on the graph, we get a curve, and this curve is called stress strain curve or stress strain diagram. stress stiffening. first order polynomial is used, displacement anywhere in the element is a . Answer: a. C. Reduced integration elements do not permit internal stress gradients because of their single integration point and suffer from their own numerical problem known as. The maximum stress a material can stand before it breaks is called the breaking stress or ultimate tensile stress. . Transcribed image text: A-1 Quadratic elements are used to approximate the temperature distribution at (X=7 cm) in the straight fin. and a basis function looks e. Where N1 N2 N3 are the shape functions of quadratic element . Check the first s . This means that the only thing we have to consider is tension or compression. Mechanics of Solids MCQ question on Simple Stress and Strain 1. So the determinant is equal to zero. Jun 29, 2011 · That is the reason, we are not prefering triangular elements. This element can be used for plane stress or plane strain problems in elasticity. This set of Finite Element Method Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Numerical . 1. [A] 1 [B] 2 [C] 3 . Use E ¼ 210 GPa, n ¼ 0: 30, and t ¼ 5 mm. Higher-order shapes (curvilinear elements) can be defined with polynomial and even non-polynomial shapes (e. 3. The property of a material which enables it to resist fracture due to high impact loads is known as. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) or Finite Element Method (FEM) 1-Dimensional Quadratic Elements A one-dimensional quadratic element is shown in Fig. Briefly explain your choice. Let us employ perturbation theory to investigate the Stark effect. We can determine from inspection that the element is quadratic (second order) because there’s a ‘midside’ node. two syllables with stress on first D. 1-Dimensional Quadratic Elements A one-dimensional quadratic element is shown in Fig. 3). The stresses in the quadratic element are not ______ Q3) a) Explain the scenario based elements of analysis model in detail. 3. ellipse or circle). 4. . Beam element is not an Isoparametric element since the geometry and displacement. Reduced integration elements do not permit internal stress gradients because of their single . Plot the stress of both elements as a function of the distance from the top. The section contains MCQs on four node quadrilateral, . minglassing. In this, the stress is plotted on the y-axis and its corresponding strain on the x-axis. Not only FEM professionals, . According to the Canadian government, stress has _____ costs. 03-May-2018 . no 12. Numerical Integration MCQs : Here you will find MCQ Questions related to "Numerical Integration" in Finite Element Method. 17. We can deduce immediately that the element order is greater than one because the interpolation between the nodes in non-linear. can be applied to the bar, if the shear stress in the weld is not to exceed. Can not calculate out of plane stress or failure mechanics. Useful for problems with complicated geometries, loadings, and material properties where analytical solutions can not be obtained. 4. two syllables with stress on second Ans: C Q. A. Statement 1: Software is a physical rather than a logical system element. Question 2. This is the second isoparametric element we deal with in this book. 118. – Residual:. Finite element method uses the concept of _____. g. Explanation: In numerical mathematics, the constant strain triangle element, also known as the CST element or T3 element. depression; One response to stress in the workplace is “presenteeism”. for a function defined across the element. A couple does not tend to cause a rotation of an object. ) by visualizing an tall I-BEAM that only has two plates elements through its web. fil) files (see “Output to the data and results files,” Section 4. Natural BC: The derivative is given at a point (stress BC) . The bi-quadratic element formulation just shown is known as a Lagrangian isoparametricrectangular element. We can determine from inspection that the element is quadratic (second order) because there’s a ‘midside’ node. It is easier to refer to the ratio of stresses since this applies to material properties. In stress analysis the stresses are in general. 3 The bonding element in a strain gauge must posses. 20. Note that the elements connectivities are all ordered in a counter-clockwise fashion; if this is not done so some Jacobian’s will be negative and thus can cause the sti nesses matrix to be singular (and obviously wrong!!!). tardiness b. T. (a) Mohr's Circle (b) Cauchy's Stress quadratic (c) Lame's Stress ellipsoid (d) All the above. MCQ model question paper subject: feast class: branch: mechanical semester: the solution fem is exact approximate exact exact answer: mostly approximate from would be quadratic in x and the stress would be linear in x. Stark in 1913 [ 105 ]. The ratio must always be greater than unity. The product of stress and strain variation is thus quadratic, . T. 3 Theories of failure When a machine element is subjected to a system of complex stress system, it is The tables in this section list all of the output variables that are available in ABAQUS/Standard. The ultimate strength of steel in tension in comparison to shear is in the ratio of. Explanation: In numerical analysis, a quadrature rule is an approximation of the definite integral of a function, usually stated . stress c.
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